Kazakhstan is officially known to the world as the Republic of Kazakhstan, its geographical and geopolitical position were the two vital elements that played a major role in the country’s development. Kazakhstan is located in the central part of Eurasia and bounded by the countries such as Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan.

Recognized for having the world’s oldest civilization and trade routes, it has always been a social, economic, and a cultural exchange point for the rest of the world and significantly Asia. The country’s journey to the present time can be traced to the different historical stages that contributed to the emergence and development of modern-day Kazakhstan.

Ancient times

Before Kazakh, the region was inhabited by several nomadic tribes and historians of antiquity called them Saka. The devastating reign of Saka ended with the invasion of Genghis Khan’s Mongol-Tatar hordes in 1218. After this aggressive campaign, Kazakhstan became the part of vast Mongol empire, Which was spread out in the entire Central Asian region. Historians will later call this empire as the Golden Horde. But with internal wars between the feudal lords and the liberation struggle lead by the conquered people resulted in destabilization the Golden Horde. Eventually, they disintegrated into separate tribal alliances.


During the early middle ages, the Kazakhs region saw an increase in the large population of farmers who were engaged in crop farming, melon growing, and horticulture. As a result, the feudal town began to emerge and trade routes were developed with China, Iran, and other central Asian countries.

Kazakhs came out as a distinct ethnic group with the formation of the Kazakh Khanate in a late 15th century. However, the state was dealing with the civil war among various feudal lords and as a result, its economic, cultural progress and military progress was adversely affected.

In the 17th century, the state was divided into the three union tribes the Elder, Middle and Lesser Zhuzes. With Mongol invading, the State of Kazakhs took the aid of its neighbor and trade partner Russia and signed the act related to voluntary accession to Russia by Kazakhstan in 1731.

Russian dominance

During the first half of the 19th century, the economy of Russia became more strengthened on the backward parts of Kazakhstan.  The resultant was the settling of numerous Kazakhs who took up farming as their profession. The agricultural production increased, expanding the trade and economics of the nation.

During the 20th century, because of the outbreak of First World War, numerous mishaps happened to the people of Kazakhstan. The taxes of all kinds were levied from the Kazakhs. Livestock, fodder and agricultural produce were confiscated from them. After the rebellion in October 1917, Kyrgyzstan was created by the Bolsheviks who ignored the ethnic disparities between the people. During the initial years of its formation, Kyrgyzstan was called Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Kazakhstan


The Soviet reign was established in Kazakhstan after the revolution of 1917. The people of the country were greatly oppressed. And, in the 1930s due to the forced collectivization, 1.5 million Kazakhs died of hunger. People were forced to leave the country, while intellectual were either repressed or killed in the Soviet regime. On December 17, 1986, numerous people took on the street and protested against the Soviets. The protest was a clear signal to the world that the reign of the Soviet was soon coming to the end.  Five years after the protest on December 16, 1991, Kazakhstan proclaimed independence and appointed Nursultan Nazarbayev as its first democratic president of the Country.

The Modern day Kazakhstan has maintained a positive and strong relationship with Russia. Not only it has opened doors for the entire worlds but is also emerging as the developed country on the global level.

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